Selasa, 10 Juli 2012

MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS

PAPER PUNCTUATIONS IN ENGLISH
By: Susanti Intan K
1. Introduction
            Punctuation marks are essential when you are writing. They show the reader where sentences start and finish and if they are used properly they make your writing easy to understand.
            Punctuation does have other uses, however, because much writing is never meant to be read aloud. Punctuation is used to organize the structure of  written words, to separate parts of a sentence such as conversations, direct quotes and lists. As with all other aspects of English, punctuation has its rules and exceptions. There are even situations in which the correct answer could be, "It depends on what you mean."

            Most people realize the importance of accurate punctuation. In order to communicate effectively through the medium of print (whether on the page or screen), it is essential that the rudiments of punctuation are understood and applied - routinely and consistently. Unfortunately, too many people lack confidence in their ability to punctuate precisely and with clarity.

2. Discussion
            In this section gives practical guidance on how to use commas, semicolons, and other types of punctuation correctly, so that your writing will always be clear and effective. There are many kinds of punctuation. Some of them can do many things. 
The various types of punctuation in English:
1)   Capital letters
  - All sentences begin with capital letters. (semua kalimat selalu diawali dengan huruf besar/kapital)
Example : We enjoyed reading the book. 
  - Proper nouns begin with capital letters. (kata benda nama diri diawali huruf besar)
Example : Mrs. Clark asked if Amy would help. 
  - A capital letter begins the first, last, and any important word in the title of a book, magazine, song, movie, poem, or other work. (mengawali setiap awal kata pada judul bacaan)
       Example : She saw Snow White when she was seven years old.
2)   Period or full stop [.]
  - A perod is used to end a sentence. It shows when an idea is finished. (tanda titik berfungsi untuk mengakhiri sebuah kalimat)
Example : I read the magazine.
  - A period is used to show that a word has been made shorter. A word that is made shorter with a period is called an abbreviation. (mempersingkat kata)
example: The words doctor, mister, and mistress are often made shorter when used with a name. "Dr. Smith" is the name of a doctor whose last name is Smith, and "Mr. Benjamin" and "Mrs. Delacross" are common ways of writing "Mister Benjamin" and "Mistress Delacross".
3)   Commas
       Commas are probably the most widely used punctuation mark. However, they are not always used correctly. The easiest tip to figure out when the best time to place a comma is whenever the reader should pause or take a breath in the middle of a sentence. Anytime a coordinating conjunction is used (and, but, yet, etc.), then a comma should also be used. Transition words should be followed by commas. When dialogue is expressed to a particular person or group of people, a comma should separate that object from the rest of the sentence. 
A common example is shown below.
  - Use a comma to show a pause in a sentence. (tanda koma berfungsi sebagai jeda dlm sebuah  kalimat)
Example : Therefore, we should write a letter to our principal. 
  - Use a comma with quotation marks to show what someone has said directly. (gunakan koma dengan tanda kutip untuk menunjukkan apa seseorang mengatakan secara langsung)
Example : "I can come today," she said, "but not tomorrow." 
  - Use commas for listing three or more different things. (Gunakan koma untuk menulis daftar    tiga atau lebih hal yang berbeda)
Example : Ontario, Quebec, and B.C. are the three biggest provinces. 
 -Use commas around relative clauses that add extra information to a sentence. (koma digunakan pada sekitar klausa relatif yang menambahkan informasi tambahan untuk kalimat)
            Example : Emily Carr, who was born in 1871, was a great painter.
4)   Question mark [?]
   - Question marks are used when writing a question, to make an inquiry, or to ask something. (Tanda tanya digunakan ketika menulis sebuah pertanyaan, untuk membuat penyelidikan, atau untuk menanyakan sesuatu)
 For example: "Hallie, have you done your homework?"
 "Elizabeth said 'How are you?' to Hallie."
   "Why is the oval egg?"

5)   Exclamation mark [!]
  - An exclamation mark is used write about a strong emotion, or to write the words a person shouted. It can be used to make a statement stronger or more forceful.
Example : The building is on fire!
 "well done!"
  - An exclamation mark can be used with a question mark, to make a question more forceful.
Example : "'What did you do that for?!' she said angrily."

6) Colon [:]
    -  Use a colon to introduce a list of things. (Gunakan tanda titik dua untuk memperkenalkan daftar hal-hal)
Example : There are three positions in hockey: goalie, defences, and forward.

7)   Semicolon [;]
  - A semicolon is used to connect two sentences, in one sentence, where a comma could also be used. (titik koma digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua kalimat, dalam satu kalimat, di mana koma juga dapat digunakan)
example: I could tell that it was getting late; it was growing darker by the second.
         - Use a semicolon in lists that already have commas. 
           (Gunakan titik koma dalam daftar yang sudah memiliki tanda koma)
Example : 
The three most beautiful beaches in Jogjakarta are Baron; Kukup; and Goa cemara beach.

8) Apostrophe [']
       ApostrophesApostrophes are perhaps the most confusing of all punctuation marks. They have a number of uses: Showing possession Singular Plural Joint Indicating omissions Forming some plurals Some of the uses seem contradictory; that’s why they are confusing.
   - Use an apostrophe to show ownership of something. 
     (tanda kutip digunakan untuk menunjukkan kepemilikan dari sesuatu)
     Example : This is David's computer.
                These are the player's things. (things that belong to the player)

   - Plurals words referring to more than one thing) do not need an apostrophe.
     (kata-kata bentuk jamak merujuk pada lebih dari satu hal) tidak perlu apostrof)
 For example: "Apples for sale," not "Apple's for sale."
   - Use an apostrophe to show letters that have been left out of a word. 
     (tanda kutip digunakan    untuk menunjukkan huruf yang telah ditinggalkan dari sebuah kata.)
      Example : I don't know how to fix it.
                    

9)   Quotation Marks ["]
  - Quotation marks shows what someone has said directly. They are used in pairs. In these cases, quotation marks go after the commas and periods, not before. (tanda kutip menunjukkan perkataan orang secara langsung). Tanda petik digunakan berpasangan dan penggunaanya setelah koma).
Example : The candidate said, "We will win the election."
                       "I can come today," she said, "but not tomorrow
  - Quotation marks are also used in some other cases besides direct speech, for example around the name of a song. In these cases, the commas can come after the quote marks.
Example: "After recording "Beat It", Michael Jackson went on to record several more hits."

10) Dash [-]
  - Use a dash before a phrase that summarizes the idea of a sentence. 
     (tanda hubung digunakan sebelum sebuah frase yang merangkum ide kalimat)
Example : Mild, wet, and cloudy - these are the characteristics of weather in Jogjakarta. 
  - Use a dash before and after a phrase or list that adds extra  information in the middle of a sentence. (Gunakan hubung sebelum dan setelah frase atau daftar yang menambahkan informasi tambahan di tengah kalimat)
Example : The children - Alfa, Kaisha, and Alya - went to the bookstore.                    
- Use a dash to show that someone has been interrupted when speaking. (tanda hubung digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa seseorang telah terputus ketika berbicara.)
     Example : The woman said, "I want to ask - " when the earthquake began to shake the earth.

11)    Hyphen [-]
·      Use a hyphen to join two words that form one idea together. 
     (berfungsi untuk menggabungkan dua kata yang membentuk satu ide bersama-sama)
Example : sweet-smelling
                 fire-resistant
·      Use a hyphen to join prefixes to words. (untuk menggabungkan prefiks kata-kata)
Example : anti-Canadian
                 non-contact
·      Use a hyphen when writing compound numbers. 
     (Gunakan tanda hubung saat menulis nomor senyawa)
Example : one-quarter
                 twenty-three

12)    Ellipsis [...]
·      It is used to show where words have been missed out when writing what a person said. It can also be used to show that there is more to be said but the person stopped at that point.
For example:
... one day all Americans will live peacefully throughout the world ... they will be at peace with all other world inhabitants ...
So much more could be said ...
3. Summary 
            Punctuation is the name for marks used in writing. These marks help with understanding. There are many kinds of punctuation. Some of them can do many things. These are some common punctuation marks used in English:
  • . is a period or full stop.
  • , is a comma.
  • ? is a question mark or query.
  • ! is an exclamation mark.
  • ' is an apostrophe.
  • " is a quotation mark.
  • : is a colon.
  • ; is a semicolon.
  • ... is an ellipsis.
  • - is a hyphen.
SUMBER

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